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【寫作】俯拾皆是的靈感來源 — 托福獨立寫作

相對於 Integrated writing task 考察考生的資訊整合能力,Independent writing task旨在檢視考生批判性思考以及資訊闡發能力;獨立寫作的題型之提問模式皆以社會議題出發,考生在命題中二選一或多選一選擇自己立論位置,並清楚闡述個人意見。因此一個合理、優異的作文除了要求邏輯架構清晰之外,也必須具有足夠有說服力,始能取得高分。究竟一篇足夠說服力的文章特徵為何?


要解答這個問題,不妨先回顧一下獨立寫作的官方定義:write an essay based on personal experience or opinion in response to a writing topic. 可知,官方對於一篇獨立寫作的期待通常在考生自身的經驗與思維;若希望文章引人入勝,「生活經驗」自然是最為重要的元素。

當考生寫文章主體時,首先應將主題句逐一紀錄於考場白紙,而這些概念化的立論內容正是各個段落需要支撐的對象,而支撐的方式相較起單純以理服人,應改以個人經驗為上。


提供個人生活範例的優勢:


1. 具說服力,快速讓讀者理解立論基礎與內涵。


2. 減少句子結構的潛在錯誤:支持性句子必須有效地連結概念性句子,在不給予生活經驗的情況下則容易偏題。


以下偏題範例

主題句:I believe that teachers have the obligation to pass on what they have learned.

支撐性句子:Teachers had an experience of advanced education from college. They should not let that advantage become useless. We all learn because we want to become better people that this world needs……

這裡出現了嚴重鬆散的連結,We all learn because we want to become better people that this world needs 與「教師有義務傳授所知」的支持關係極度薄弱,以至於言之無物,甚至像是一個全新的主題句,而敘述生活經驗則較能避開此類錯誤。


3. 考試只有 30 分鐘 (包含審題),若經常練習生活中可能使用到的句子可以限縮單字的記憶範圍以及想點時間。


以下為生活經驗範例:


題目:

A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it, either to go on vacation or to buy a car. Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend's choices and explain one you think your friend should choose.

主體 (部分):

Third, owning a car is totally exhausting. From experience, since buying a car, I have had nothing but stress. My car is shabby and is always in need of constant maintenance. Even now, I still worry that my car might break down on the way to work. If so, not only will I be late, but also I will have to pay for the towing bill…

如此,讀者則能理解為何買車對筆者而言是較差的選項。

有哪些題材可以使用呢?如何激發自己的想像?生活中又有甚麼面向更能獲取高分呢?非常歡迎前來Pin TOEFL! 我們將給您最好的建議!



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